What is a special assessment district?


A special assessment process is one way a township can assist taxpayers to fund the costs for certain types of public improvements under Michigan Public Act 188 of 1954 as amended. This act allows for certain improvements to be paid by the levying of taxes (or special assessments), assessed against the property benefited by it.

Public improvements authorized by Public Act 188 of 1954, as amended (MCL 41.721). include:

• The construction, improvement, and maintenance of storm or sanitary systems, water systems, public roads, public parks, or private roads, sidewalk. bicycle paths, lighting systems.
• The collection and disposal of garbage and rubbish
• The eradication or control of aquatic weeds and plants
• The construction, improvement, and maintenance of a lake, pond, river, stream, lagoon, or other body of water or of an improvement to the body of water. This includes, but is not limited to, dredging.

Special Assessment District (SAD)
A SAD is a defined group of properties especially benefited by an improvement. While statute allows for a township to initiate a SAD, it is typically done by petition of the property owners in a designated area who wish to make an authorized improvement. Petitions must represent 51% of the area around the lake (see assessor for details) and have the signatures of all parties listed as owners for each parcel to count toward the 51%. The township then acts in an administrative capacity and establishes the district through a process of 3 public hearings:

1st hearing - to hear the request and/or objections for the SAD district/petitions/proposed improvement. If there is enough support to continue, the board adopts a resolution tentatively setting up the district. Those requesting the SAD need to provide cost estimates and detailed plans for the improvement no later than one week before the next hearing.


2nd hearing - to be held 30 days later - to establish the district, including a map to show which parcels are included; to instruct the assessor to calculate the tax roll with the dollar amounts for each parcel (based upon the provided cost estimates). Objections can be made at this hearing as well.

Objections can be made in writing (they should be delivered to the clerk 24 hours in advance of the hearing) or better yet, attend the meeting in person! It must be noted that if a property owner wishes to challenge the petitions, improvement, district and/or special assessment, they must have made an official protest at the appropriate public hearing outlined above.

3rd hearing - to be held 30 days later - to approve the roll as presented by the assessor.

All costs incurred by the township from the time of initial application through the duration of the special assessment and/or for as long as there remain any outstanding issues on the the improvement, these are included in the final cost. Related costs include: administration (time and materials), engineering (design and inspection), construction (material and labor), consultation (financial, accounting and legal services).

How your share is calculated
There are several different methods commonly used to allocate or spread the costs for the improvement against those properties within the SAD, including: front footage, land area, site/lot, lot depth, value or a combination. The method used varies according to the nature of the improvement and the type and characteristics of the properties contained within the SAD.
While front footage may be the simplest method, it may not be the most appropriate.

Paying your Special Assessment and annual review
Special assessments can be paid in full without interest at the time the assessment is first levied or may be paid in annual installments for a specified number of years, with the winter ad valor em property taxes, issued on December 1st. However, each year, a new special assessment roll is prepared and reviewed by the township board for approval at a public hearing. Often the assessment amount remains about the same each year because of the careful planning at the beginning and scrutinizing bills/needs during the assessment year.
Because the special assessment can only go the winter tax bill, the above meetings (and paperwork) need to be completed by September 1st. 

​Assessments Can be Revised

If project costs exceed estimates, the law permits the township board to reassess the additional expenses. Any increase 9% or less can be approved by the board if the costs are substantiated by documentation. If the increase amount will exceed 9%, then there must be public notices and a public hearing. It is much easier to reduce estimates than increase them, so it is a good idea to estimate costs on the high side before the first public hearing at the beginning of the SAD.

At the end of the SAD, if there is less than 5% surplus, the township may retain the surplus. If there is more than a 5 percent surplus (after all project costs are paid), property owners will be given a refund! However, before making a refund, all project costs must be carefully reviewed, including future expenses related to the project in which case a fund balance should be retained to cover those costs.

​​Billing and Payments For ongoing SAD projects, such as weed districts, lake associations often take the lead in finding the services needed for their lake. The lake association may sign a contract directly with the service provider, pay them directly and later seek reimbursement, or the lake association may negotiate a contract with a service provider and the bring it to the township board for approval. In this case, each party signs the contract in a timely fashion, with township board approval at a meeting, then township can pay the service provider from the money collected through the SAD.

​In both cases, payments follow the township board meetings and documentation of all transactions and treatments is required.


Property exempt from taxation is frequently not exempt from special assessments. For example, property used for a charitable purpose may be tax-exempt, but property owners may still have to pay special assessments.

For a summary of Weed District/SAD process, click here

Aquatic Special Assessment Districts article by Attorney Clifford H. Bloom, click here.

Lake Boards (NR-EPA Public Act 451) - Lake weed projects can also be addressed by a Lake Board (PA 451), click here for the FAQ on lake boards! Lake boards were designed for when a lake is located in more than one municipality to reduce the need for duplicate public hearings and provide a standardized approach to lake treatment. Lake boards are efficient because they bring more expertise to the table and can focus solely on the health and treatment of the lake. Meetings are open to the public and a riparian landowner from the lake is on the lake board. The lake board can retain their own attorney. Lake board members can be paid to attend meetings but often the interest and concern for the lake is enough. Lake boards do not replace the need or role of the lake association, in replaces the township board with members with more expertise and the sole focus of every meeting is the health of the lake!